Basic Electronic Components

The point of this tutorial is to provide the reader with a essential concept of the physical structure of individual electronic components.


A resistor, as the name tells us, is electronic device resists (or opposes) current flow in a circuit.
The characteristic of opposing current flow can be applied for many purposes. Hence, resistors are on of the most common discrete components found in electronic equipment (the word discrete is used in electronics to notify non-integrated, or standing alone device). There are two major categories of Resistors:fixed and adjustable.
Fixed resistors are by far the most common form of resistors.
Adjustable resistors are called potentiometers or they are also known as rheostats.


Next to resistors, we talk about capacitors, these are probably the most common component in electronics field. Capacitors are manufactured in a large range variety of shapes and sizes. In most, they are either flat, disk-shaped components, or sometimes they are tubular in shape.

Capacitors differ in size from almost microscopic to about the same diameter, and twice the height, of a big coffee cup. Capacitors are famous two-lead devices, sometimes the capacitors resembls with a fixed resistors which is without the color bands.


Inductors are studied in two main classifications:one is  transformers and other is chokes (or coils). Transformers are designed for power conversion applications, referred to as power transformers or filament transformers, and these are usually heavier, blockshaped components consisting of two or more than two coils of wire that arewound around stiff rectangular wafers of iron.

Next to transforemers are Diodes, aDiodes are two-lead semiconductor devices with tubular bodies that are similar to fixed resistors. Diodes bodies are usually black or clear, having a single-colored band close to one end. Diode bridges are actually four diodes that are encased in square or round housings. They contains four leads, or connection terminals, two of which will be denoted with a horizontal S symbol (sine-wave symbol), one will be marked “_” and the other will be“_.”


Transistors are an important electronic component that arethree-lead semiconductor devices manufactured in a wide range of shapes and sizes to accommodate such design parameters as power dissipation, breakdown voltages, and cost-benefit. Some power transistors have an oval-shaped body with containing 2 mounting holes on either side (this is commonly called as TO-3 or TO-5 case styleWhen you see first, it appears that it has have two leads, but, in fact, the body itself is the third (collector) lead.

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