Full Wave Rectification

A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC (direct current), and is more efficient.

Full wave rectification:

The positive half cycle:

During the positive half cycle of the supply, diodes D1 and D2 conduct in series while diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased and the current flows through the load as shown below

The negative half cycle:

During the negative half cycle of the supply, diodes D3 and D4 conduct in series, but diodes D1 and D2 switch of as they are now reverse biased. The current flowing through the load is the same direction as before.

Full wave rectification for smoothing DC:

With the full wave rectification we get the pulsating DC with the ripples.For smooth DC we use capacitors to remove ripples.

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Half Wave Rectification

In half wave rectification, either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output.Half wave rectification can be achieved with a single diode in a one phase supply, or with three diodes in a three-phase supply.

During the first half cycle of the waveform the diode is forward biased and current flows around the circuit formed by the diode, the transformer winding and the load.
During the second half cyclethe diode is reverse biased and no current flows.
The diode only conducts on every other half cycle. Hence, HALF-WAVE RECTIFICATION.
The rectified voltage is DC (it is always positive in value). However, it is not a steady DC but PULSATING DC. It needs to be smoothed before it becomes useful.
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Rectifier & Inverter

The Electric device which converts the alternating current AC to direct current DC is called rectifier. And this process is known as rectification.
Rectifiers are used in the detection of signals and in power supplies.


The electric device which converts the direct current DC to alternating current AC is called Invertor. Read More!


A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between a conductor and an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically.

Semiconductors are important in electronic technology. Semiconductor devices, electronic components made of semiconductor materials, are essential in modern consumer electronics, including computers, mobile phones, and digital audio players. Silicon is used to create most semiconductors commercially, but dozens of other materials are used Read More!

Conductors & Insulators

In science and engineering , a conductor is a material which contains movable electric charges. In metallic conductors, such as copper or aluminium, the movable charged particles are electrons.

Positive charges may also be mobile in the form of atoms in a lattice missing electrons (called "holes") or ions, such as in the electrolyte of a battery.

Insulator is a material that resists the flow of electric current. An insulating material has atoms with tightly bonded valence electrons. These materials are used in parts of electrical equipment, also called insulators or insulation, intended to support or separate electrical conductors without passing current through themselves. Read More!

Atomic Structure

An atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of that element.Each of the known 109 elements has atoms that are different from the atoms of all other elements.

According to the Bohr model, atoms have a planetary type of structure that consists of central

surrounded by orbiting electrons .The nucleus consists of positively charged particles called protons and uncharged particles called neutrons .The basic particles of negative charge are called electrons.

A look of helium atom is:

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